Hunter’s elements of effective instruction were NOT designed as a checklist to be completed each class period.

1. Anticipitory Set

2. Objective and Purpose

3. Input

4. Guided Practice

5. Independent Practice


The teacher should know what objectives and standards of performance are to be expected, and the pupils should be informed about these objectives and standards.

Before the lesson is prepared,teachers should have a good understanding of what the teaching objectives are. What, specifically, should the student be able to do, understand, and care about as a result of the teaching.

The teacher needs to know what standards of performance are to be expected and when pupils will be held accountable for what is expected.


There are five parts to elements of effective instruction.

Anticipitory Set:A brief activity or event at the beginning of the lesson that effectively engages all students' attention and focuses their thoughts on the learning objective.

  • It is to grab the student's attention: actions and statements by the teacher to relate the experiences of the students to the objectives of the lesson.
  • To put students into a receptive frame of mind.
  • To focus student attention on the lesson.
  • To create an organizing framework for the ideas, principles, or information that is to follow

Objective and Purpose:The teacher should know what OBJECTIVES and STANDARDS of performance are to be expected, and the pupils should be informed about these objectives and standards.

Input:Teacher actions that should all relate to the objective. a. Information given by the teacher that is relevant. b. Activities planned by the teacher that are relevant. c. Questions that are asked by the teacher that are relevant. d. Responses that are relevant.


Guided Practice:Under the tutelage of the teacher, the learner practices the objective as modeled during the input stage. This is an opportunity for students to grasp and develop the concept through participation in activity or exercise. This element is most effective if students are continuously monitored by the teacher for the purposes of time-on-task and assessment of learning. Immediate feedback (peer or teacher) is powerful at this point in the lesson.

Independent Practice:On his own, the learner reinforces the objective through practice. This primary purpose of this element is to reinforce the content or skill that was mastered in the lesson. Independent practice of the concept or skill should continue over time and be applied to as many relevant situations as possible. In other words, independent practice should include use of the concept or skill in a context other than the one in which it was learned.


Steps Of Effective Intrustion

Here are many videos by Judy Speirs to help guide you. Videos

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Empowering Teachers

Madeline Hunter's ITIP model for direct instruction


Madeline Hunter



Teaching teachers forum

In conclusion, have a set of specific objectives for every single thing you teach and for every phase of instruction for that thing. Objectives (in any phase of instruction) should be in the form of do-statements. There should be several do-objectives for everything you are teaching. You should have specific (do-statement) objectives for different time periods of instruction. Organize instruction such as lessons around big ideas: concepts, rule relationships, theor es and models. Use objectives to: plan instruction, plan applications, and Plan tests and assessments. Lessons should never be on one thing. Focus on the specific objective at hand; however, keep your eye on how, later, it will be used. Use the frame-model-lead-test/check, verification format. Use the correct format (version of m-l-t) to teach objectives. Use a wide enough range of examples. Select examples, and juxtapose examples and nonexamples, to reveal clearly sameness and difference. Teach at a perky pace. Emphasize!!! Ask the question first; then call. Have objectives and work on all phases of instruction to ensure mastery. Objectives and their related tasks should be a logically progressive sequence. When possible, pre-test, and plan instruction accordingly. When you are at the board, leading students through a task ask questions, questions, questions. Make sure everyone gets it before you go on.


Here is a powerpoint with an assignment that will help guide you threw Elements of Effective Intrustruction!



These are the sites that I encountered to recieve my information.